Paul wrote to the Roman church to establish what has now been known to be some of the key tenets of the Christian Faith. Every believer must thoroughly digest the writings in Romans for an effective walk with God in Christ Jesus. He addressed matters of circumcision, adamic nature, forgiveness of sin, nature of carnal man and many others.
Paul first introduced himself as separated (1) to talk about the gospel(2-6). He continued writing about how he has been trying to come to Rome to no avail (7-15).How he is not ashamed of the gospel (16-17). How from the beginning, God hated unrighteousness(18) and that humans cannot deny God exists as His invisible qualities are apparent in visible creation(20). But they made other gods and ignored Him so God left them to do unfitting things (28). Which they do deliberately and approve others doing it(32).
Paul continues, saying it is terrible for one to judge as no one is true (1). That it comes with severe repercussions (3-5). That if you’re saved it’s only because of God’s goodness (4). That God will judge and repay with eternal life those who patiently continue in righteousness and vice versa (5-11). Even gentiles without the law will be fairly judged (12-15). He said the advantage of being a Jew, one chosen to be knowledgeable about truth is pointless when such break the law. (16-24). And that circumcision is really of the heart , in the Spirit and it’s for those who being Jew or not, love and obey God.
Paul went further to emphasize that being a Jew and of the circumcision actually has great benefits as they were entrusted with the revelation of God to the world. But that ultimately all have sinned(23). But we have all been justified through the death of Jesus.(24-26). By faith and not of deeds of the law (27-30). However, the law is not made void but established (31)
This chapter was a study of Abraham wrt faith and justification/righteousness. Abraham was proclaimed righteous due to obedience/faith and David also prophesied the blessing of a man who enjoys remission of sin without works(1-8). Abraham was justified before circumcision that he might be the father of all who believe whether circumcised or uncircumcised(9-12). The promise of God to Abraham as father of many nations was not to his seed through the law but through the righteousness of faith(13-16-22). This was written for our benefit and we are also justified by faith if we believe in Him and His sacrifice for our sins, as well as His resurrection.
Paul continues on the premise that now that we have been justified by faith, we are at peace with God, through Jesus who atoned for our sins and we now have the hope of the glory of God(1-4). We experience the great love of God through His Holy Spirit (5). That it is a great/uncommon thing to know that Christ died for us while we were yet sinners (6-11). And just as Adam’s offense condemned us all to sin and death (before and after the law), Christ’s obedience saved us all from condemnation by faith(12-19). The law however is good because it made sin obvious so that we can appreciate the great grace through which we were made righteous(20-21).
Although we live now under grace, it is not a license to live a life of sin. Paul strongly stated that grace does not abound in sin(1). We died to sin when Jesus died and rose to a new life when he resurrected. Because we were in Him (2-10). Our duty is to present ourselves to God in righteousness so that the life of sin is mortified (11-14)
Again Paul strongly stated that Grace is not a license to live a life of sin (15). Who you present yourselves to obey is who enslaves you. Whether sin/uncleanliness/ lawlessness (death) or obedience (righteousness and holiness leading to eternal life.(16-23)
We are delivered from the law, not to remain single, but to marry another, the newness of the Spirit. (1-6). Paul stated that the law is not sin but sin thrived under the law by producing evil desire. So without the law, sin is dead(7–12). So how did law, so holy, just, and good produce death in me? (13). Because the law is spiritual and the body(me) is carnal. And the body/flesh only desires to do what the inward man/spirit should not do and vice versa.(23). The only one that can save me from the body of death is Jesus (24).
Paul starts by saying that now, we are no longer under condemnation, because we are in Christ Jesus and we live according to the Spirit and not the flesh. He then buttressed more on the weaknesses of the law and how Christ was manifested to deliver us. (1-2). Paul went on to contrast life in the flesh (mind on things of flesh, carnality, death) and life in the Spirit (mind on things of the Spirit, peace and life) (3-6). That the way to live in the Spirit is to have the Spirit of God(7-10).So put the flesh to death by the Spirit(12-13).
Good news. We are now sons. If we have the Spirit. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.”(14). We can call Him Abba (15), because we are children, heirs and even joint heirs with Christ(15-17). But as sons, we might go through some sufferings which is little compared to the glory to come (18). Creation is eagerly waiting for us to manifest and set things right, even we wait for the adoption and redemption of our body. (19-24).
Hence the Spirit helps us in all our inadequacies. In prayers, interceding for us according to God’s will. So that all things work for our good.(25-30).
Lastly Paul charged us to consider that God has proved the vastness of His unending love for us, by giving His only Son, hence we are more than conquerors and nothing can and should be able to separate us from His love.(31-39)
Here Paul laments on the unbelief of the Jews in Christ. He examined the history of the nation from Abraham and God’s covenant with them. He also pointed out how they are refusing to accept the truth but rather stick to the law. And how gentiles, once not people of God are the ones that accepted Christ wholeheartedly.
Still on Israel, Paul said they have a zeal for God but in the wrong way, without knowledge, rejecting the sacrifice of Jesus and chasing after their own righteousness. (1-8). Paul says Israel needs the gospel to be saved. To be saved, one has to confess with the mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in the heart that God raised Him from the dead. “For with the heart one to the believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.”(8-10-13). And whosoever call on the name of the Lord shall be saved(14).
But they don’t believe so how will they call Him? They need to hear to believe, and they need a preacher to hear and who would preach unless he is sent. Hence God is displeased with Israel (15-21).
But has God rejected Israel. No. Because there is still a remnant by grace of election. (1-7). Others are trapped by their knowledge of the law. And their failure has allowed gentiles to accept salvation (11-12). Nevertheless, gentiles should not boast against Israel and should revere the gift of salvation. (13-22). For God can graft them in again (23-27). They are still his firstborn and beloved of the Father (28…)
This chapter began to describe the expectations of the new life in Christ. To present our bodies as a living sacrifice, to not conform to the world, to renew our minds and be transformed, to know that we belong to one body as members, and with different spiritual gifts which should be used for God. To be humble even in this serving God with honor(1-8). To love without hypocrisy, hate evil, be kind, honor each other, diligent, fervent in Spirit, serve God, give, pray, rejoice, give to the saints and kingdom advancement and be patient(9-13).
Paul went further to outline other qualities that should be seen of the new life. Bless your enemies and those that persecute you, do not avenger yourself as God will do that, and others (14-20). Lastly, he exhorts to repay evil with good and not evil (21).
Paul urges believers to submit to governing authorities, keep the law of the land, pay taxes and give honor to them in rulership(1-7). He stated that love is the fulfillment of the law so we should love our neighbour as ourselves(8-10). Ultimately put on the Lord Jesus Christ and make no provision for the flesh to fulfill its lusts.
Paul here begins to address differences in belief system and exhorts that each should respect each other’s beliefs and not judge. In eating of meat, in observing of specific days, let each be convinced and do it unto the Lord. Avoid using this to put a stumbling block in front of one another(1-12). Paul states that he is convinced there is nothing unclean but to be mindful of your brother, lest he falls because of your food(14-23). And to do all things because of faith not out of doubt.
Let the strong (in faith and convictions) help those who are weak and not just please themselves. Just as Christ did(1-6). Paul went further to urge gentiles to accept each other and glorify the Father for His mercy and gift of Jesus Christ(1-13). Paul states that he is confident the Roman believers are able with the help of God to admonish one another and that writing them was to address some points as God has given him grace through the Holy Spirit(14-21).
He then begin to speak of his planned itinerary to Jerusalem and Spain and likelihood of visiting them in Rome, urging them to pray for him that his teachings might be received and acceptable(22-33).
Paul commended sister phoebe to their care and sends greetings to fellow believers in Rome(1-16). Paul wrote the church to avoid people that cause division and offenses. Paul sends greetings from the saints with him.(1-24).
Paul gives glory to God , who is able to establish the saints(25-27).